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A strap button is typically installed at the base of the neck either at an angle or inserted into the neck heel.
Saddle is the top-most part of the bridge where the strings rest.
The scale length of Gibson and similar mandolins is the same, whether short or long neck. The position of attachment is different, but the fret scale is the same, and the bridge position on the top corresponds to the neck position, keeping the string length the same.
This is a peghead that tapers from small to large from the top, rather than the other way around.
Explanation of oval and f-style soundhole types