14 inches vs. 13 7/8 is the scale length (Distance from nut to bridge) not the fretboard length.
Short neck usually refers to neck joining the body at 12 while long neck refers to neck/body joint at 15 like Jerry said.
The 15 Frets to body lenght give more reach. With oval holes there is debate on the impact to tone of a short vs longer neck as thee longer neck positions the bridge towards the fingerboard and alters its position on the soundboard.
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